List of Heavy Machine Guns - HMG

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Heavy Machine Gun - HMGThe heavy machine gun or HMG is a larger class of machine gun generally recognized to refer to two separate stages of machine gun development. The term was originally used to refer to the early generation of machine guns which came into widespread use in World War I. These fired the standard (~.30 or 7.62mm) rifle cartridge but featured heavy construction, elaborate mountings, and water cooling mechanisms that enabled heavy and sustained defensive fire with excellent accuracy, but with the cost of being too cumbersome to move quickly. Thus, in this sense, the "heavy" aspect of the weapon referred to the weapon's bulk and ability to sustain fire, not the cartridge caliber. This class of weapons is best exemplified by the Maxim gun, invented by American Hiram Maxim. The Maxim was the most ubiquitous machine gun of World War I, regional variants of which were fielded simultaneously by three separate warring nations (Germany with the MG08 in 8mm Mauser, Britain with the Vickers in .303 British, and Russia with the Pulemyot M1910 in 7.62x54R).

The more modern definition of heavy machine gun refers to a class of large-caliber (generally ~.50 or 12.7mm) machine guns pioneered by John Moses Browning with the M2 machine gun and designed to provide an increased degree of range, penetration and destructive power against vehicles, buildings, aircraft and light fortifications over the standard rifle calibers used in medium or general purpose machine guns. In this sense, the "heavy" aspect of the weapon refers to its superior power and range over light and medium caliber weapons. This class came into widespread use during World War II, when the M2 was used widely in fortifications, on vehicles and in the air by the American forces. A similar HMG capacity was fielded by the Soviets in the form of the DShK in 12.7x108mm. The ubiquitous German MG42, though well suited against infantry, lacked the M2's anti-fortification and anti-vehicle capability, a fact that was noted and lamented by the Germans after the D-Day invasion. The continued need for a longer range machine gun with anti-materiel capability to bridge the gap between exclusively anti-infantry weapons and exclusively anti-materiel weapons has led to the widespread adoption and modernization of the class; the M2 is now the oldest serving weapon in the US arsenal, and most nations are equipped with some type of HMG.

Currently, firearms with calibers smaller than 12.7 mm are generally considered medium machine guns, while those larger than 15 mm are generally thought of as auto-cannons instead of heavy machine guns.
List of Heavy Machine Guns:
HMG Picture Specifications Country Year
Rheinmetall RMG.50 Rheinmetall RMG.50 Heavy Machine Gun Cartridge: .50 BMG
Weight: 25 kg
Germany 2010
Zastava M02 Coyote Zastava M02 Coyote Heavy Machine Gun Cartridge: 12.7x108mm
Rate of Fire: 700/minute
Muzzle velocity: 820 m/s
Effective Range: 2 km
Weight: 25 kg
Serbia 2005
QJG-02 heavy machine gun QJG-02 heavy machine gun Cartridge: 14.5x114mm M41 China 2005
Kord-12.7 mm Kord-12.7 mm Heavy Machine Gun Cartridge: 12.7x108mm
Rate of Fire: 750/minute
Muzzle velocity: 860 m/s
Effective Range: 2 km
Weight: 25 kg
Russia 1990
CIS 50MG CIS 50MG Heavy Machine Gun Cartridge: .50 BMG
Rate of Fire: 600/minute
Muzzle velocity: 884 m/s
Weight: 30 kg
Singapore 1988
W85 W85 heavy machine gun HMG 12.7x108mm China 1985
FN BRG-15 FN BRG-15 heavy machine gun 15x115mm & 15.5x106mm Belgium 1983
Type 77 Type 77 heavy machine gun 12.7x108mm China 1977
NSV machine gun NSV heavy machine gun 12.7x108mm Russia 1971
MAC-58 MAC-58 heavy machine gun HMG .50 BMG France 1956
KPV-14.5 KPV-14.5 heavy machine gun 14.5x114mm M41 Russia 1944
Vickers .50 machine gun Vickers .50 heavy machine gun .50 BMG UK 1940
Berezin UB Berezin UB heavy machine gun 12.7x108mm Russia/Soviet 1939
MG 131 MG 131 heavy machine gun 13mm APT Germany 1938
DShK DShK heavy machine gun 12.7x108mm Russia/Soviet 1938
Breda M37 Breda M37 heavy machine gun 8x59mm RB Breda Italy 1937
Fiat-Revelli Modello 1935 Fiat-Revelli Modello 1935 heavy machine gun 8x59mm RB Breda Italy 1935
ZB-50 ZB-50 heavy machine gun 7.92x57mm Mauser Czechoslovakia 1932
Ckm wz.30
7.92x57mm Mauser Poland 1930
M2 Browning M2 Browning 1921 heavy machine gun .50 BMG US 1921
M1917 Browning machine gun M1917 Browning heavy machine gun .30-06 Springfield US 1917
Skoda M1909 Skoda M1909 heavy machine gun 8x50mmR Mannlicher Austro Hungary 1909
Schwarzlose MG M.07/12 Schwarzlose MG M.07/12 heavy machine gun 8x50mmR Mannlicher Austro Hungary 1907
Salvator-Dormus M1893 Salvator-Dormus M1893 heavy machine gun 8x50mmR Mannlicher Austro Hungary 1893
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